Well another bug has come up, this time with the Error function in ErrorList.h:
This seems to be a compiler bug as it's never happened before.
You haven't made it easy to find the point where this happens (e.g. by showing pre-processed code with the point of error). A possiblity is that compilers you used in the past didn't check for correct function typing (particularly in contexts where it wasn't required prior to the adoption of a standard).
This is a pretty generic diagnostic and the header file you attached is not a standalone header so we can't tell what the problem is. We need to be able to reproduce the error to help you further. This means attaching all the source and headers or creating a preprocessed header (using the -P or -E options) as Tim suggests.
A report of missing vcvarsall.bat might indicate you don't have visible the required Microsoft C++ installation matching your Intel compiler. This would account for missing headers and libraries.
While there exist pthreads ports for Windows, they aren't part of a standard Windows build environment, so it's not surprising your build would report no such installation. If it doesn't provide an alternative build path for an environment which lacks pthreads, you would need to take care of that.