This looks very hypothetical. Since you appear to be expecting the compiler to treat both k and -k equally as constants, it's unlikely to make a difference. I can imagine related situations where the negation might be an additional operation, or where it might pay off by enabling commutation optimizations.
As far as I know, the number of micro-ops, clock cycles, etc are identical in your cases. If you're working at such a low level, and don't want to rely on documents, you ought to be able to time things and find out if there's any measurable difference. If there isn't, why would anyone care?