This is very similar to an issue I ran into a while ago (in which I was using VS2012 rather than 2013), which turned out to be caused by (silently!) incompatible versions of Intel's OpenCL runtime, and SDK.
I have attached screenshots showing the problem, using Intel's own 'MedianFilter' example project (trivially modified with a printf).
The breakpoints show the solid red circles which indicate that they are properly bound, yet they do not work.
I am using:
Visual Studio 2013 Ultimate.
Windows 7, 64-bit.
OpenCL runtime for Intel Core and Xeon Processors [...] version 22.214.171.124 [the latest release]
Intel SDK for OpenCL Applications 2014 version 126.96.36.199 [the latest release]
Solved the problem: the MedianFilter example uses offsets, so my work-item (0,0,0) debugging session wasn't applicable.
Using (0,2,0), it works, in both VS2012 and VS2013. (By means of Right click > Options > Select Work Items.)
I'll now get back to trying to debug my own project...