The SDK and driver split delivery model for Linux is intended to be like Windows. For Windows, driver updates can happen in any of the ways that the Windows graphics driver can be updated. There is no specific requirement to tie specific versions of driver and SDK together. However, for new features and bug fixes it is best to have the latest version -- for Linux and Windows.
For Ubuntu 16.04, it isn't on the official support list but as far as I know there is no reason it would not work.