No, you cannot.
- The Celeron E3400, part of the Wolfdale processor family (shipped starting in 2010), is designed for the LGA775 socket, motherboards utilizing 3 Series chipsets and DDR2 memory.
- The Core i3-8100, part of the Coffee Lake processor family (shipped starting in 2017), is designed for the LGA1150 socket, motherboards utilizing the 300 Series chipsets and DDR4 memory.
Bottom line, in order to use a Core i3-8100 processor, you will definitely need to replace your motherboard and your memory and your power supply. If you are using a discrete graphics card, you will also need to replace this card as well (unless you are going to use the Intel UHD Graphics 630 solution integrated into this processor). Essentially, we are talking a complete system replacement.
Hope this helps,