In the E144-pin package, there is an exposed ground pad on the bottom of the package. Does the FPGA work without this exposed ground pad connected to the ground plane of the PCB?
This question assumes that this exposed ground pad is poorly connected.
there is the following sentence in a pinout document for Intel MAX 10 device, 10M16SA (https://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/programmable/us/en/pdfs/literature/dp/max-10/10m16sa.pdf
The E144-pin package has an exposed ground pad at the bottom of the package. The exposed ground pad is used for electrical connectivity and not for thermal purposes. You must connect the exposed ground pad to the ground plane of the PCB.