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Valued Contributor III
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i want to read an image (or preferably a matrix of size 8x8) pixel by pixel in one clock cycle(if rising edge then read one pixel in 2nd rising edge 2nd pixel)....thanks in advance

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Valued Contributor III
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Valued Contributor III
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Sounds like a normal project. Whats the problem?

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Valued Contributor III
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i have got the code to extract row wise in each clock cycle.... How to extract pixel by pixel in each clock cycle.....and store it in another matrix....

i have to do Discrete wavelet transform on images by lifting scheme.
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Valued Contributor III
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my project is to perform discrete wavelet transform of image...for which i have to implement lifting scheme on image...which needs to extract even and odd pixels of the respective image.....

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Valued Contributor III
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--- Quote Start ---

i have got the code to extract row wise in each clock cycle.... How to extract pixel by pixel in each clock cycle.....and store it in another matrix....

i have to do Discrete wavelet transform on images by lifting scheme.

--- Quote End ---

Use a counter as the index into the array?

Why not try and code this yourself and we can help with problems? we are not going to do your work for you...
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

--- Quote Start ---

Use a counter as the index into the array?

Why not try and code this yourself and we can help with problems? we are not going to do your work for you...

--- Quote End ---

``` package newtype is type row_t is array(0 to 3) of integer; type matrix_t is array(0 to 3, 0 to 3) of integer; type row_pixel is array (0 to 0) of integer; end newtype; --function to extract each pixels of a row function extract_row_pixel(row1 : row_t; pixel : integer) return row_pixel is variable ret_pixel : row_pixel; begin for i in 0 downto 3 loop ret_pixel(i) := row1(pixel, i);------error is Type integer is not an array type and cannot be indexed. end loop; return ret_pixel; ------error is Expecting type row_pixel for <ret_pixel>. end function; if rising_edge(clk) then temp_row_pixel <= extract_row_pixel (output, to_integer(count)); count <= count + 1; output1 <= temp_row_pixel; end if; ```

error is :
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Valued Contributor III
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For a start, this is never going to work. It looks like you're trying to write sofware. This is clearly not the full code as there are lots of things missing (like a process, architecture, etity etc).

So errors in your code: row_pixel is an array of length 1. Your for loop also never executes as you have 0 downto 3 (a null range).

I suggest you go back to the drawing board - literally. DRAW your intended circuit on paper before you write any VHDL. VHDL is a hardware description language. Not a programming language. Writing code like software will not work.
Highlighted
Valued Contributor III
15 Views

--- Quote Start ---

For a start, this is never going to work. It looks like you're trying to write sofware. This is clearly not the full code as there are lots of things missing (like a process, architecture, etity etc).

So errors in your code: row_pixel is an array of length 1. Your for loop also never executes as you have 0 downto 3 (a null range).

I suggest you go back to the drawing board - literally. DRAW your intended circuit on paper before you write any VHDL. VHDL is a hardware description language. Not a programming language. Writing code like software will not work.

--- Quote End ---

``` ---main code package newtype is type row_t is array(0 to 3) of integer; type matrix_t is array(0 to 3, 0 to 3) of integer; type row_pixel is array (0 to 0) of integer; end newtype; library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.numeric_std.all; use work.newtype.all; entity test is port(input: in matrix_t; clk: in std_logic; output : inout row_t; output1 : out row_pixel); end test; architecture arch of test is signal matrix : matrix_t; signal temp_row : row_t; signal temp_row_pixel : row_pixel; signal count : unsigned(1 downto 0) := "00"; --signal output: row_t; --function to extract rows function extract_row( m : matrix_t; row : integer) return row_t is variable ret : row_t; begin for i in row_t'range loop ret(i) := m(row, i); end loop; return ret; end function; --function to extract each pixels of a row function extract_row_pixel(row1 : row_t; pixel : integer) return row_pixel is variable ret_pixel : row_pixel; begin for i in 0 to 3 loop ret_pixel(i) := row1(pixel, i); end loop; return ret_pixel; end function; begin process(clk) begin if rising_edge(clk) then temp_row <= extract_row( input, to_integer(count) ); count <= count + 1; output <= temp_row; temp_row_pixel <= extract_row_pixel (output, to_integer(count)); count <= count + 1; output1 <= temp_row_pixel; end if; end process; end arch; ---testbench library IEEE; use IEEE.Std_logic_1164.all; use IEEE.Numeric_Std.all; use work.newtype.all; entity test_tb is end; architecture bench of test_tb is component test port(input: in matrix_t; clk: in std_logic; output : inout row_t; output1 : out row_pixel); end component; signal input: matrix_t; signal clk: std_logic; signal output: row_t; signal output1 : row_pixel; constant clock_period: time := 10 ns; signal stop_the_clock: boolean; begin uut: test port map ( input => input, clk => clk , output => output, output1 => output); stimulus: process begin input <= ((0,1,2,9), (3,5,6,10), (9,8,11,2), (9,7,1,6)); wait for 50ns; stop_the_clock <= true; wait; end process; clocking: process begin while not stop_the_clock loop clk <= '1', '0' after clock_period / 2; wait for clock_period; end loop; wait; end process; end; ```
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Valued Contributor III
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Why bother declaring row_pixel at all? its just an array of length 1, why not just return an integer?

Why are you using an inout for output? this is bad practice

the error is here:

for i in 0 to 3 loop

ret_pixel(i) := row1(pixel, i);

end loop;

ret_pixel is a row_pixel type with a range 0 to 0. Your loop is going out of range.
Highlighted
Valued Contributor III
15 Views

And why not just the count signal to access into the image?

Highlighted
Valued Contributor III
15 Views

--- Quote Start ---

Why bother declaring row_pixel at all? its just an array of length 1, why not just return an integer?

Why are you using an inout for output? this is bad practice

the error is here:

for i in 0 to 3 loop

ret_pixel(i) := row1(pixel, i);

end loop;

ret_pixel is a row_pixel type with a range 0 to 0. Your loop is going out of range.

--- Quote End ---

what should i write if i have to extract each value from the row (output) in each clock cycle....
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

what about something simple like this?

``` signal row, col : unsigned(1 downto 0) := "00"; process(clk) begin if rising_edge(clk) begin output <= input(to_integer(row), to_integer(col)); col <= col + 1; if col = "11" then row <= row + 1; end if; end if; end if; ```
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

I want to follow this algorithm :

d(n)=output(2n+1)-(1/2)[output(2n)+output(2n+2)]

where output is an array consisting of 64 values...

after each clock cycle d(n) gets a definite value based on calculation

so according to this algorithm d(n) must contain 31 values...

---main code

package newtype is

type row_t is array(0 to 63) of integer;

type approx_t is array(0 to 30) of integer;

type matrix_t is array(0 to 7, 0 to 7) of integer;

end newtype;

library ieee;

use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;

use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all;

use ieee.numeric_std.all;

use work.newtype.all;

entity test is

port(input: in matrix_t;

clk: in std_logic;

output : inout row_t;

d : out approx_t);

end test;

architecture arch of test is

signal matrix : matrix_t;

signal temp_row : integer;

signal temp_approx : integer;

signal i : unsigned(5 downto 0) := "000000";

signal n : unsigned(4 downto 0) := "00000";

signal count : unsigned(6 downto 0) := "0000000";

signal limit : unsigned (6 downto 0) := "1111111";

signal row, col : unsigned(2 downto 0) := "000";

begin

process(clk)

begin

if rising_edge(clk) then

temp_row <= input(to_integer(row), to_integer(col));

output(to_integer(i)) <=temp_row;

col <= col + 1;

if col = "111" then

row <= row + 1;

end if;

i<=i+1;

count <= count + 1; -----here i am trying to waste some clock cycles, because after few clock cycles only required number of outputs will be available for operation.

if count >= limit then

temp_approx <= output(2*((to_integer(n)))+1)-0.5*(output(2*((to_integer(n))))+output(2*((to_integer(n)))+2));--error: Found 0 definitions for operator "*"

d(to_integer(n)) <= temp_approx;

n<= n+1;

end if;

end if;

end process;

end arch;

---testbench

library IEEE;

use IEEE.Std_logic_1164.all;

use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all;

use IEEE.Numeric_Std.all;

use work.newtype.all;

entity test_tb is

end;

architecture bench of test_tb is

component test

port(input: in matrix_t;

clk: in std_logic;

output : inout row_t;

d : out approx_t);

end component;

signal input: matrix_t;

signal clk: std_logic;

signal output: row_t;

signal d: approx_t;

constant clock_period: time := 0.1ns;

signal stop_the_clock: boolean;

begin

uut: test port map ( input => input,

clk => clk ,

output => output);

stimulus: process

begin

input <= ((0,1,2,9,10,5,8,4), (3,5,6,10,2,9,10,5), (9,8,11,2,10,2,9,10), (9,7,1,6,10,2,9,10),(1,4,5,3,6,10,8,9),(14,2,3,5,6,7,8,9),(9,7,1,6,10,2,9,10),(12,4,7,8,9,2,12,0));

wait for 50ns;

stop_the_clock <= true;

wait;

end process;

clocking: process

begin

while not stop_the_clock loop

clk <= '1', '0' after clock_period /2;

wait for clock_period;

end loop;

wait;

end process;

end;

error is : Found 0 definitions for operator "*".

Highlighted
Valued Contributor III
15 Views

you cannot multiply unsigned type and real type (0.5). Real type is not suitable for synthesis. Try /2 instead.

But I still think you have real issues with your architecture. It is very inefficient and written as if it was software. Why do you have to "waste" clock cycles?

Also - what external interfaces are you using? I doubt there are enough pins to output an entire 8x8 array - so why not do the calcualtions serially?

Have you drawn out your circuit on paper?
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

wasting clock cycles means the algorithm should start after some defined clock cycles

yes i have drawn circuit on paper... the thing is i am trying to do the project first on a small matrix of 8x8... if the algorithm works properly then i will implement with the complete 512x512 image
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

With a 512x512 image - you need to use ram. There will not be enough resources to store an entire image in registers (and it would take forever to compile).

You need to rethink your design.
Highlighted
Valued Contributor III
15 Views

--- Quote Start ---

With a 512x512 image - you need to use ram. There will not be enough resources to store an entire image in registers (and it would take forever to compile).

You need to rethink your design.

--- Quote End ---

I understand that sir completely... But currently i have to work with a small matrix only...once algorithm is developed it is not very difficult to apply it to a full size image..

(i have generated the hex file of the image from MATLAB, all i need is to load each value from that file with every clock cycle, hence i am trying to develop the code for algorithm first...)
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Valued Contributor III
15 Views

yes temp_aprrox, output gets reasonable values .

and yes row and col are correct at the correct times.

only problem is with "d"....
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Valued Contributor III
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I think you have replied to the wrong forum - but do you realise that D will only take 1 value every 128 clocks, so it will take 8192 clocks to complete every value in the D array? Until they are set, D(r,c) will have the value -2^31.