I've just installed Quartus Prime Lite on Ubuntu 16.04. I ran ./setup.sh with root privileges and the installation finished successfully, except that I got the following alert on the command line:
Inconsistency detected by ld.so: dl-close.c: 811: _dl_close: Assertion `map->l_init_called' failed!Yet the Quartus window happily popped up. The only minor inconvenience I can see is that I had selected the "Create desktop shortcut links" option at the end of the installation process, yet no shortcuts were created---maybe because the desktop directory is named Scrivania in my localized Ubuntu setup? Should I expect problems at a later stage of using Quartus?
Ubuntu isn't a supported Linux distribution for Quartus. What this means in practice is that it doesn't have the expected versions of various libraries. You should be able to find postings on how to install the libraries and library versions that Quartus expects. I'd recommend you uninstall Quartus and then add the libraries and re-install.