I installed second 120GB Intel 510 SSD in my 2011 imac and I have exactly the same issue: after 1-2 days of working perfectly OK the filesystem becomes corrupted (this has happened 4 times with previous drive, I had it replaced but it has already happened twice with the new one).
I sent an email to Intel support - the answer was a bit pathetic though: my system is not certified and may not work with Intel SSD. Come on Intel - where does it say on the box that the drive will only work with "certified" systems? What about SATA standard? What about a bunch of other manufacturers' drives that do work?
Do you have any idea what can be wrong? I know it may be a faulty drive but... what are the chances of 2 Intel drives failing in a row...?
That's a pretty lame response from Intel.
I've had a similar experience with a 120GB 510 in a MacBook Pro (2009) running Lion. The system will fail to boot, and upon booting to the recovery disk and running Disk Utility to verify the volume, it comes back corrupt. Repair fails. After pulling the drive and attaching through a USB bridge, I am able to mount the volume and read/copy data but cannot write to the volume. The drive is essentially write-protected / ready only.
After the first failure, I was able to erase and reinstall Lion fresh. However, the filesystem ended up going corrupt / ready only again and the system failed to boot (again, was able to mount via a USB bridge and read data). I've since moved on from Intel SSD's (fourth one to fail on me...) but would still like an answer with substance to it / a legitimate effort on Intel's part to offer support.
Well.. I never got satisfying response from Intel - they finally agreed to replace the drive but said that (this is really good!) if the drive failed again I'd have to run diagnostics tool on... a PC (which I don't have access to) or otherwise they would not be able to do anything else for me... I tried explain thast I don't have a PC and Intel never said (neither in drive spec/box/ads) that the drive works with Windows/PC only so I'd expect them to provide me with support no matter what system I use - that didn't really help...
Anyway - I managed to send the drive back to the shop and get full refund. Bought Vertex 3 MAX IOPS and never had any issues again (and I've been using it for several weeks now).
My advice - forget about Intel SSDs if you have a Mac...