Recently I have been having problems with my Intel Wireless driver (or adapter). It completely disappears from my laptop from time to time causing me to be unable to connect to the internet. When I try to use the Intel Pro Wireless Setup program, it will begin running and then stops. Is there another way that I can install the driver without the setup program?
No, there isn't. This is sounding like more than a driver problem, however; your adapter may be failing.
If this adapter came with your laptop, then its warranty is through the laptop manufacturer. You need to contact them regarding replacement.