I'm using an eval copy of VTune Amplifier XE 2016 on Linux. I've found that it can organize a function's assembly code according to numbered basic blocks.
Is there any way I can easily get a graphical depiction of the function's CFG, where those same basic blocks are nodes in the graph, and (ideally) the graph indicates each BB's CPU Time?
I'm sorry, but no. There is no support within the tool to do that. There might be some charting tool that can take text-based data and do what you want, but I don't know of any.