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Allocatable arrays of derived types

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Hi,

I want to define a derived type PM consisting of an integer array ng(n1,n2) and a double vector zg(n3).

I wrote

:TYPE PM

INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)

DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)

END TYPE PM

n1, n2 and n3 are defined run time.

Then I finally want to allocate an array PMA   with n4 of PM derived types. 

n4 is defined at run time.

How do I allocate PM and PMA? 

Best regards

Anders S

 

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You have an error in your

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You have an error in your programming:

...
CALL sub(PMA) !  *** 1 argument
...
SUBROUTINE sub(n1,n2,n3,n4,PMA) ! *** 5 arguments

If you select the compile time check to generate and warn for interface mismatch you will receive a warning

Additionally:

SUBROUTINE sub(n1,n2,n3,n4,PMA)
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER,INTENT(IN)::n1,n2,n3,n4
TYPE PM
  INTEGER ng(n1,n2)
  DOUBLE PRECISION zg(n3)
END TYPE PM

Your type PM, as written, cannot use an undefined value for the array dimension values (not defined until run time).

While (after fixing arguments) you could possibly use a Parameterized Derive-Type Statement:

https://software.intel.com/en-us/fortran-compiler-developer-guide-and-reference-parameterized-type-s...

In your situation it is not recommended. Something like the following could be used:

MODULE YourModuleName
    TYPE PM
      INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)
      DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)
    END TYPE PM
    contains
    SUBROUTINE sub(PMA)
        IMPLICIT NONE
        TYPE(PM), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE, INTENT(IN)::PMA
        ! following assunmes (requires) PMA is allocated, has index including 1, PMA(1)%zg is allocated and has index of 1
        ! place tests and error actions here
        
        PRINT *,PMA(1)%zg(1)
    END SUBROUTINE sub
END MODULE YourModuleName
    
PROGRAM test
    USE YourModuleName
    IMPLICIT NONE
    INTEGER i,n1,n2,n3,n4
    Type(PM),ALLOCATABLE::PMA(:)
    
    n1=20
    n2=2
    n3=1000
    n4=5
    ALLOCATE(PMA(n4))
    DO i=1,n4
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%ng(n1,n2))
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%zg(n3))
    ENDDO
    PMA(1)%zg(1)=3.14D0
    CALL sub(PMA)
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
END PROGRAM test

Jim Dempsey

 

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Black Belt
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You can't allocate PM, it's a

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You can't allocate PM, it's a type.

First you allocate PMA:

type(PM), allocatable :: PMA(:)
...
allocate (PMA(n4))

This doesn't allocate the ng and zg components of each element - you'll need to loop through the elements of PMA and allocate those separately, if desired.

Steve (aka "Doctor Fortran") - https://stevelionel.com/drfortran
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Beginner
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Hi Steve,

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Hi Steve,

Thanks a lot for your rapid and precise answer!

I coded and compiled your suggestions and they passed with no compile error.

I have attached my code just for documentation reasons.

Best regards

Anders S

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Looks good.

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Looks good. Note that when you deallocate PMA, all the subcomponents get deallocated automatically.

Steve (aka "Doctor Fortran") - https://stevelionel.com/drfortran
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New Contributor I
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when mecej4 set up the

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when mecej4 set up the allocatable in MAGNI -- he used stat=err?  Is this still a good idea?

INTEGER ERR
INTEGER, ALLOCATABLE :: A(:), B(:)
...
ALLOCATE(A(10:25), B(SIZE(A)), STAT=ERR)  ! A is invalid as an argument to function SIZE

 

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Beginner
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Hi,

It may be interesting to use the derived type PMA as a subroutine argument. I have checked this in various sources but

did not find any "clear advice". I made a "best effort guess" in the supplied code but I know it is wrong. I would be most grateful to have this

matter clarified. Is there any best practice when it comes to defining derived types, e.g. using modules?

Best regards

Anders S

 

 

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Valued Contributor III
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Quote:Anders S. wrote:

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Anders S. wrote:

.. I have checked this in various sources but did not find any "clear advice". .. Is there any best practice when it comes to defining derived types, e.g. using modules?

Re: sources, have you looked at these?

https://www.amazon.com/FORTRAN-SCIENTISTS-ENGINEERS-Stephen-Chapman/dp/0073385891

https://www.amazon.com/Modern-Fortran-Style-Norman-Clerman/dp/052173052X

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>>INTEGER ERRINTEGER,

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>>
INTEGER ERR
INTEGER, ALLOCATABLE :: A(:), B(:)
...
ALLOCATE(A(10:25), B(SIZE(A)), STAT=ERR)  ! A is invalid as an argument to function SIZE
<<

As to which of A or B is allocated first, it is ambiguous at least to use SIZE(A) in this case. I think that the error message in the compiler version that you are using is inadequate. In Version 2020

error #6500: A bound in an allocate-shape-spec involves array inquiry about allocate-object in same ALLOCATE statement.  

Jim Dempsey

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Anders,

When you supply code examples, please use the {...} code button to paste the text of the source code (select as Fortran format from the pull-down).

Pasting a screenshot makes it difficult for the readers to test your code.

Jim Dempsey

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PROGRAM test
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER i,n1,n2,n3,n4
TYPE PM
  INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)
  DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)
END TYPE PM
Type(PM),ALLOCATABLE::PMA(:)
n1=20
n2=2
n3=1000
n4=5
ALLOCATE(PMA(n4))
DO i=1,n4
  ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%ng(n1,n2))
  ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%zg(n3))
ENDDO
PMA(1)%zg(1)=3.14D0
CALL sub(PMA)
DEALLOCATE(PMA)
STOP
END
!------------------------------------------
SUBROUTINE sub(n1,n2,n3,n4,PMA)
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER,INTENT(IN)::n1,n2,n3,n4
TYPE PM
  INTEGER ng(n1,n2)
  DOUBLE PRECISION zg(n3)
END TYPE PM
TYPE(PM),DIMENSION(n4)::PMA
PRINT *,PMA(1)%zg(1)
RETURN
END

Hi,

FortranFan:

Which of the books do you prefer?

Jim:

Sorry for my screen copy!  I have now supplied the code example in the right format.

Best regards

Anders S

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Valued Contributor III
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Quote:Anders S. wrote:

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Anders S. wrote:

..

FortranFan:

Which of the books do you prefer? ..

@Anders S.,

I recommend both of above books.  I strongly recommend you get the first book by Stephen Chapman and go through it fully first.  You can also consider a couple of other books but my suggestion will be to look at these after reviewing the book by Chapman:

https://www.amazon.com/Modern-Fortran-Explained-Incorporating-Mathematics/dp/0198811896/ref=dp_ob_ti...

https://www.amazon.com/Numerical-Computing-Fortran-Applied-Mathematics/dp/1611973112

Here's another reference:

http://fortranwiki.org/fortran/show/HomePage

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You have an error in your

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You have an error in your programming:

...
CALL sub(PMA) !  *** 1 argument
...
SUBROUTINE sub(n1,n2,n3,n4,PMA) ! *** 5 arguments

If you select the compile time check to generate and warn for interface mismatch you will receive a warning

Additionally:

SUBROUTINE sub(n1,n2,n3,n4,PMA)
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER,INTENT(IN)::n1,n2,n3,n4
TYPE PM
  INTEGER ng(n1,n2)
  DOUBLE PRECISION zg(n3)
END TYPE PM

Your type PM, as written, cannot use an undefined value for the array dimension values (not defined until run time).

While (after fixing arguments) you could possibly use a Parameterized Derive-Type Statement:

https://software.intel.com/en-us/fortran-compiler-developer-guide-and-reference-parameterized-type-s...

In your situation it is not recommended. Something like the following could be used:

MODULE YourModuleName
    TYPE PM
      INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)
      DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)
    END TYPE PM
    contains
    SUBROUTINE sub(PMA)
        IMPLICIT NONE
        TYPE(PM), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE, INTENT(IN)::PMA
        ! following assunmes (requires) PMA is allocated, has index including 1, PMA(1)%zg is allocated and has index of 1
        ! place tests and error actions here
        
        PRINT *,PMA(1)%zg(1)
    END SUBROUTINE sub
END MODULE YourModuleName
    
PROGRAM test
    USE YourModuleName
    IMPLICIT NONE
    INTEGER i,n1,n2,n3,n4
    Type(PM),ALLOCATABLE::PMA(:)
    
    n1=20
    n2=2
    n3=1000
    n4=5
    ALLOCATE(PMA(n4))
    DO i=1,n4
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%ng(n1,n2))
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%zg(n3))
    ENDDO
    PMA(1)%zg(1)=3.14D0
    CALL sub(PMA)
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
END PROGRAM test

Jim Dempsey

 

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Hi Jim,

Thank you for your rapid and complete answer!

I had meanwhile searched the web and found a very similar problem and

rewritten the code, which resembled your answer. After a few corrections by looking

at your code, I arrived at the code below. I want to move the subroutine sub outside

the module as sub in the real case is a few hundred lines long. Compilation gives one error

which I have depicted. The error maybe come from moving sub outside the module?

Best regards

Anders S

MODULE PMd
  TYPE PM
    INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)
    DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)
  END TYPE PM
END MODULE PMd
!----------------------------------------------------------
PROGRAM test
USE PMd
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER i,n1,n2,n3,n4
TYPE(PM),ALLOCATABLE::PMA(:)

INTERFACE
  SUBROUTINE sub(PMA)
  USE PMd
  TYPE(PM) PMA
  END SUBROUTINE sub
END INTERFACE

n1=20; n2=2; n3=1000; n4=5
ALLOCATE(PMA(n4))
DO i=1,n4
  ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%ng(n1,n2));  ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%zg(n3))
ENDDO
PMA(1)%zg(1)=3.14D0
CALL sub(PMA)  <--------------------------------------error #6634
DEALLOCATE(PMA)
STOP
END PROGRAM test
!------------------------------------------------------------
SUBROUTINE sub(PMA)
USE PMd
IMPLICIT NONE
TYPE(PM),DIMENSION(:),ALLOCATABLE,INTENT(IN)::PMA
PRINT *,PMA(1)%zg(1)
RETURN
END SUBROUTINE sub

test.f90(27): error #6634: The shape matching rules of actual arguments
and dummy arguments have been violated.   [PMA]
pmd.mod : \

 

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The following has error

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The following has error actions:

MODULE YourModuleName
    TYPE PM
      INTEGER,ALLOCATABLE::ng(:,:)
      DOUBLE PRECISION,ALLOCATABLE::zg(:)
    END TYPE PM
    contains
    SUBROUTINE sub(PMA)
        IMPLICIT NONE
        TYPE(PM), DIMENSION(:), ALLOCATABLE, INTENT(IN)::PMA
        if(.not. allocated(PMA)) then
            print *,"PMA not allocated"
            return
        endif
        if(size(PMA) < 1) then
            print *,"PMA must have size >= 1"
            return
        endif
        if((lbound(PMA,DIM=1) > 1) .or. (ubound(PMA,DIM=1) < 1)) then
            print *,"PMA(1) does not exist"
            return
        endif
        if(.not. allocated(PMA(1)%zg)) then
            print *,"PMA(1)%zg not allocated"
            return
        endif
        if(size(PMA(1)%zg) < 1) then
            print *,"PMA(1)%zg must have size >= 1"
            return
        endif
        if((lbound(PMA(1)%zg,DIM=1) > 1) .or. (ubound(PMA(1)%zg,DIM=1) < 1)) then
            print *,"PMA(1)%zg(1) does not exist"
            return
        endif
        
        PRINT *,PMA(1)%zg(1)
    END SUBROUTINE sub
END MODULE YourModuleName
    
PROGRAM test
    USE YourModuleName
    IMPLICIT NONE
    INTEGER i,n1,n2,n3,n4
    Type(PM),ALLOCATABLE::PMA(:)
    
    n1=20
    n2=2
    n3=1000
    n4=5
    ALLOCATE(PMA(n4))
    DO i=1,n4
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%ng(n1,n2))
      ALLOCATE(PMA(i)%zg(n3))
    ENDDO
    PMA(1)%zg(1)=3.14D0
    CALL sub(PMA)
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA not allocated"
    ALLOCATE(PMA(0))
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA must have size >= 1"
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
    ALLOCATE(PMA(2:3))
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA(1) does not exist"
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
    ALLOCATE(PMA(4))
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA(1)%zg not allocated"
    ALLOCATE(PMA(1)%zg(0))
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA(1)%zg must have size >= 1"
    DEALLOCATE(PMA(1)%zg)
    ALLOCATE(PMA(1)%zg(2:3))
    CALL sub(PMA)   ! "PMA(1)%zg(1) does not exist"
    DEALLOCATE(PMA)
END PROGRAM test

For an unexplained reason I had to include ",DIM=1" on the lbound and ubound intrinsic functions.

Steve L, perhaps you can shed light on this requirement. DIM=1 should have been implicit

Anders,

Note that sub requires PMA to be an allocatable  array. There would be an issue if your code requires sub to be called with a non-allocatable array as well as allocatable. I will let you address this issue.

Jim Dempsey

 

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Hi Jim,

PMA will always be allocatable in order to adjust to the actual dimensions of the problem, e.g. the number of subgroups when

the MPI communicator has been split.

Hi FortranFan,

Thanks again for your advice. I have found that working on a physical problem, physics, mathematics and numerics takes a lot of

gunpowder leading to little left to dive in writing nice code that use all functionality of Fortran. I guess you have already noticed that...

Therefore, the IDZ support is invaluable!

Best regards

Anders S

 

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In your post #13, line 17 or

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In your post #13, line 17 or the interface to SUB states PMA is a scalar (single) as opposed to an array.

Further, it is bad practice to place the INTERFACE in the caller's code as opposed to the preferred location of being in a MODULE. Locating the interface within a module reduces potential errors later as interface checking is always assured.

Jim Demspey

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Hi Jim,

I think with your final comment I have got my problem solved!

Thanks all contributors!

Best regards

Anders S

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