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Beginner
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forming a 64 bit integer from two 32 bit integers

I try to read some data from a binary file written in the form of four 32 bits unsigned integers, iSub(0:3). One of the parameters need to be extracted has a length of 48 bits. It is defined in my code as Integer(kind=8); Int8. According to the documentation the low bits of Int8 are in bytes 0:31 of iSub(1) and bytes 32:47 are in bytes 0:15 of iSub(2).

 I use the following code:

Int8 = ISHFT(( iSub(2)  .AND. #FFFF),32) + iSub(1)

This works correctly, until iSub(1) reaching the maximum size of an Integer(kind=4).

 

Any recommendation how to overcome this limitation?

 

Tibor

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Int8 = ISHFT(INT(( IAND(iSub(2),Z'0000FFFF'),8),32) + IAND((int(iSub(1),8),Z'00000000FFFFFFFF'))

You also might consider using UNION

UNION
  MAP
    INTEGER(4) :: iSub(2)
  END MAP
  MAP
     INTEGER(8) :: iSubAsI8
  END MAP
  MAP
    INTEGER(1) :: PADD(6)
    INTEGER(2) :: ZAP
  END MAP
END UNION

CALL YourRead(iSub)
ZAP = 0
Print *, iSubAsI8

Jim Dempsey

 

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Black Belt
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Another way involves using TRANSFER. For a little endian machine:

program xyz
implicit none
integer :: i4(2)
data i4 /Z'C0000000', Z'00010000'/ ! could have been read from file
integer*8 :: i8
!
i8=transfer(i4,i8)
print '(Z16)',i8
end program

 

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Thanks for both of you for the helpful suggestion. I tried the solution based on the UNION contract and it worked.

The first solution of 

Int8 = ISHFT(INT(( IAND(iSub(2),Z'0000FFFF'),8),32) + IAND((int(iSub(1),8),Z'00000000FFFFFFFF'))

might have a missing bracket

Thanks again.

 

Tibor

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Valued Contributor III
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Union map  not is  standard Fortran btw.

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Honored Contributor I
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jimdempseyatthecove (Blackbelt) wrote:

..

You also might consider using UNION ..

Jim,

As suggested by Andrew, UNION is not supported by the Fortran standard.  But you're on the right track to consider memory mapping in order to avoid needless copies of data using the other approach supported by the standard which is with TRANSFER.  But note for cases such as the one mentioned by OP, you can achieve the same in standard-conforming fashion if the Fortran processor supports the standard feature of interoperability with a companion C processor and a derived type is used instead of the non-standard UNION.  And note the feature introduced in Fortran 2008 revision of allowing objects with a POINTER attribute in a variable-definition context can make it convenient to work with such a derived type.  See below:

module bitfield_m
   
   use, intrinsic :: iso_c_binding, only : I1 => c_int8_t, I4 => c_int32_t, I8 => c_int64_t, c_loc, &
      c_f_pointer
      
   implicit none
   
   private
   
   type, public :: bitfield_t
   ! Field of 8-bit integers
      private
      integer(I1) :: m_fields(8) = 0_i1
   contains
      private
      procedure, pass(this) :: zap_fields
      procedure, pass(this), public :: int32 => get_int32
      procedure, pass(this), public :: int64 => get_int64
      generic, public :: zap => zap_fields
   end type bitfield_t
   
contains

   subroutine zap_fields( this, idx )
      ! Argument list
      class(bitfield_t), intent(inout) :: this
      integer, intent(in)              :: idx(:)
      ! Local variable
      this%m_fields( idx ) = 0_i1
      return
   end subroutine zap_fields
   
   function get_int32( this ) result(pvals)
      ! Argument list
      class(bitfield_t), intent(in), target :: this
      ! Function result
      integer(I4), pointer :: pvals(:)
      call c_f_pointer( cptr=c_loc(this%m_fields), fptr=pvals, shape=[ 2 ] )
      return
   end function get_int32
   
   function get_int64( this ) result(pval)
      ! Argument list
      class(bitfield_t), intent(in), target :: this
      ! Function result
      integer(I8), pointer :: pval
      call c_f_pointer( cptr=c_loc(this%m_fields), fptr=pval )
      return
   end function get_int64
   
end module
program p
   
   use bitfield_m, only : bitfield_t
   
   implicit none
   
   character(len=*), parameter :: fmtg = "(g0,*(z0,1x))"
   type(bitfield_t) :: bits
   
   bits%int32() = [int( Z'C0000000'), int(Z'00010000')]
   call bits%zap( idx=[7,8] )
   print fmtg, "Zapped value as a 64-bit integer: ", bits%int64()
   print fmtg, "Zapped value as 2 32-bit integers: ", bits%int32()
   
   stop
   
end program p

Upon execution:

Zapped value as a 64-bit integer: C0000000
Zapped value as 2 32-bit integers: C0000000 0

 

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Beginner
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Hi FortranFan,

Thanks for the bitfield_m module and the example. It works well.

 

Tibor

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FF

I haven't compiled your example. Can you look at the optimized disassembly to see if the compiler removed all the necessary standard conforming contortions?

mecej4's TRANSFER is (may be) the better choice. I'd wish the name could have been something different CAST or TRANSFORM may have been better linguistically. Transfer IMHO means to transport unchanged, IOW analogous to MOVE. In mecej4's usage, it behaves with MOVE with mold. Perhaps TRANSMORGRIFIER (for Clavin and Hobbes fans).

The problem with my UNION solution as it does not permit in situ coding (neither did the bitfield_t of FF's suggestion).

Jim Dempsey

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New Contributor II
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Something like that would have done the job

int64 PROC STDCALL , il:DWORD,ih:DWORD
            mov     eax,il
            mov     edx,ih
            RET    
int64   ENDP

 

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Honored Contributor I
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jimdempseyatthecove (Blackbelt) wrote:

FF

I haven't compiled your example. Can you look at the optimized disassembly to see if the compiler removed all the necessary standard conforming contortions?

mecej4's TRANSFER is (may be) the better choice. ..

The problem with my UNION solution as it does not permit in situ coding (neither did the bitfield_t of FF's suggestion).

Jim Dempsey

Jim,

Though I have not looked at the disassemby, you'd be right in thinking the derived type case I show will result in far more instructions, perhaps 2X to 3X more, than with UNION.  My point is with respect to standard conformance and also to have a portable and extensible solution, meaning with a suitably structured 'class' aka derived type, one can have a convenient utility to operate bitwise on large and different sets of data without having to make copies.  TRANSFER is not a move process, it involves copies.

As to in situ coding, it's a matter of perspective I think.  Just as in the earlier times but also now, "libraries" are expected to be kept handy including a whole bunch of utlities such as with bitwise manipulation.  Then one just USEs them as needed and the BLOCK construct brings about a more verbose but clearer sense of "in situ" for scientific and technical coding in any way:

.
.
! need to do bit maniputlation in situ?  Use BLOCK
block
   use bitfield_m, only : bitfield_t
   type(bitfield_t) :: foo
   foo%int32() = 
   ..
end block
.
.

 

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I think tkibedi needs to describe is situation a bit more:

>>a binary file written in the form of four 32 bits unsigned integers, iSub(0:3). One of the parameters need to be extracted has a length of 48 bits

In particular:

What is in the remaining data? (iow is the 1st 48-bit, assumed unsigned 48-bit, data followed by another 48-bit data, followed by ??)
Is the file very large and requires to be processed quickly?
Is this a once-only process, or repetitive process?

Jim Dempsey

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Hi Jim and FortranFan,

This piece of code meant to read the so called header records from a file (unformatted, record length 32 bits) created by Pixie-16 digital data acquisition. Most of the variables extracted from these records are integers. Attached is the layout of the header record for one of the cards. There is a slight variation in bits 16:31 of record#2 and record#3 for the second digitiser card we used. 

My problem was how to construct the EVTTIME (48 bits) from EVTTIME_LO (bits 0:31 of record#1) and EVTTIME_HI (bits 0:15 of record#2). In my code EVTTIME declared as Integer(kind=8). Speed is a real concern, as we have hundreds of GB data from a recent experiment.

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Valued Contributor III
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I would suggest that the speed of bit manipulation is not important.  Anything that involves reading very large amounts of data from files will be the thing that determines the processing time as this will be orders slower.  Just adopt a simple and reliable (and standard) method such as transfer would be my choice.

 

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Valued Contributor II
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Given that the data are already in position given little-endian hardware,

int8 = IAND(TRANSFER(iSub(1:2),int8),MASKR(48,KIND(int8)))

seems logical.

 

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You've shown the 4-word header, what does the remainder of the data look like?

If you already have C/C++ code for parsing your data stream, you might consider using the C interoperability feature to parse the data stream. Then use Fortran for the data manipulation.

Otherwise something like this (you finish and change names):

!  Pixie16.f90 
module Pixie16

type :: Pixie16_Header
    integer(4) :: FC_EL_HL_CID_SID_CH
    integer(8) :: FT_TS_TI_ET
    integer(4) :: OOR_TL_EE
end type Pixie16_Header
contains
    function Pixie16_Header_get_IsFinished(this)
        type(Pixie16_Header) :: this
        logical :: Pixie16_Header_get_IsFinished
        Pixie16_Header_get_IsFinished = (this%FC_EL_HL_CID_SID_CH < 0)
    end function Pixie16_Header_get_IsFinished
    function Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME(this)
        type(Pixie16_Header) :: this
        integer(8) :: Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME
        Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME = IAND(this%FT_TS_TI_ET, MASKR(48, kind(Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME)))
    end function Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME
! ...
end module Pixie16

program Pixie16_Program
    use Pixie16
    implicit none
    type(Pixie16_Header) :: header
    integer(8) :: time
    ! ...
    ! header = Read_Pixie16_Header
    
    if(Pixie16_Header_get_IsFinished(header)) then
        ! ...
    else
        time = Pixie16_Header_get_EVTTIME(header)
        ! ...
    endif
    ! ...
end program Pixie16_Program

Jim Dempsey

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