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Complex 1-D DFT not respecting DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT



I recently noticed that when using a threaded 1-dimensional DFT, a DFTI_COMPLEX domain DFT does not appear to respect the DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT and instead always uses the threading value set by mkl_set_num_threads().  Furthermore, it appears that while a REAL domain DFT does obey DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT, its behavior has changed between MKL v11.1 and 11.2.

In MKL v11.1, setting mkl_set_num_threads(4) followed by DftiSetValue(dft_handle, DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT, 2) caused a complex-valued DFT to spawn and use 4 threads while a real-valued DFT only spawned and used 2 threads.  In MKL 11.2, the complex-valued DFT still spawned and used 4 cores, but now the real-valued DFT also spawned 4 cores but only utilized 2 of them (2 cores were utilized at 90%+ and 2 were utilized at ~10%).  Below is the example code I've been using to replicate this behavior.  I was wondering if I'm doing something wrong or possibly misunderstanding the expected behavior of DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT.

// mkl_thread_test.cpp - Computes large threaded DFTs
//  arg1 = 'C' for complex domain or 'R' for real (optional, default REAL)
//  arg2 = scale factor for DFT (optional, default 1)

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <vector>
#include <string.h>
#include <mkl.h>
#include <omp.h>

using namespace std;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
  int mklThreads = 4;
  int dftThreads = 2;
  int dftSize = 10000000;
  int loops = 100;
  int sizeMultiplier = 1;
  if(argv[1][0] == 'C')
    domain = DFTI_COMPLEX;
    sizeMultiplier = 2;
  float scale = 1.0f;
  if(argc > 2) scale = atof(argv[2]);
  // print version number for reference
  char version[DFTI_VERSION_LENGTH];
  DftiGetValue(0, DFTI_VERSION, version);
  cerr<<"MKL Version: "<<version<<endl;
  vector<float> vin((dftSize+loops)*sizeMultiplier);
  vector<float> vout(dftSize*sizeMultiplier);
  vector<float> vtmp(loops); // for saving output to avoid compiler optimizing out computation
  for(int i=0; i<vin.size(); ++i)
    vin = float(rand())/float(RAND_MAX)-.5;
  MKL_LONG status;
  status = DftiCreateDescriptor(&dft, DFTI_SINGLE, domain, 1, dftSize);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiSetValue(dft, DFTI_PLACEMENT, DFTI_INPLACE);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiSetValue(dft, DFTI_PACKED_FORMAT, DFTI_PERM_FORMAT);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiSetValue(dft, DFTI_ORDERING, DFTI_ORDERED);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiSetValue(dft, DFTI_FORWARD_SCALE, scale);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiSetValue(dft, DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT, dftThreads);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  status = DftiCommitDescriptor(dft);
  if (status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  cerr<<"Computing "<<loops;
  if(domain == DFTI_COMPLEX) cerr<<" COMPLEX";
  else cerr<<" REAL";
  cerr<<" DFTs of size "<<dftSize<<" using "<<mklThreads<<" MKL threads but limiting DFT to "<<dftThreads<<" threads"<<endl;
  MKL_LONG threadLimit;
  status = DftiGetValue(dft, DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT, &threadLimit);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  cerr<<"Thread limit: "<<threadLimit<<endl;
  for(int i=0; i<loops; ++i)
    memcpy(&vout[0], &vin, dftSize*sizeMultiplier*sizeof(float));
    status = DftiComputeForward(dft, &vout[0]);
    if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
    vtmp = vout[0]; // save a value to avoid optimizing out the DFT computation
  cerr<<"Finished execution"<<endl;
  status = DftiFreeDescriptor(&dft);
  if(status != DFTI_NO_ERROR) cerr<<DftiErrorMessage(status)<<endl;
  return 0;

For reference, I'm running on a quad-core processor running 64-bit linux (Ubuntu 14.04) and compiling with icpc v14.0.4 (for MKL v11.1) and v15.0.2 (for MKL v11.2).  My compile line looks like:

icpc -O3 -xHost -openmp -I${MKLROOT}/include -o mkl_thread_test mkl_thread_test.cpp -L${MKLROOT}/lib/intel64 -lmkl_intel_lp64 -lmkl_core -lmkl_intel_thread -lpthread -lm -liomp5

When I call ./mkl_thread_test C, I notice 4 cores spinning at 95%, when I call ./mkl_thread_test R, I notice just 2 cores spinning at 95% for MKL v11.1 and 2 cores spinning at 95% plus 2 more cores spinning at 10% for MKL v11.2.  My exact versions of MKL are 11.1.4 Product Build 20140806 and 11.2.2 Product Build 20150120.  In both cases, the value returned by DftiGetValue(DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT) is 2 so my expectation is that the DFT should only be using 2 threads regardless of MKL version or real vs. complex DFT.

Am I doing something wrong or should MKL be respecting the value of DFTI_THREAD_LIMIT?


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4 Replies

Hi Nick,

Thank for the sample,  I had supposed, the threaded of 1D FFT are limited here. but  according to the doc.

1D transforms are threaded in many cases.

(N) > 16, and input/output strides equal 1.
1D complex-to-complex transforms using split-complex layout are not threaded.
Multidimensional transforms

We will look into this and get back to you.





Hi Nick,

Thank you for reporting this issue. We will fix it soon in one of future releases of Intel MKL.

You may want to use mkl_set_num_threads_local to set the number of threads for _all_ Intel MKL functions on the _current_ execution thread, or mkl_set_num_threads to set the number of threads for _all_ Intel MKL functions on _all_ execution threads, or mkl_domain_set_num_threads to set the number of threads for _specific_ Intel MKL functions on _all_ execution threads.

Thank you!



No problem, happy to help.  I had a few follow up questions.  I noticed when using a complex DFT in the example provided if I change DFTI_ORDERED to DFTI_BACKWARD_SCRAMBLED the thread limit automatically gets set to 1 and only a single thread is used.  Is this behavior expected?  I couldn't find anything in the documentation about ordering impacting thread limit.

Also, if I use two different DFT descriptor handles within the same programming scope and I want each to use a different number of threads (lets say 4 and 2 respectively), is it safe to call mkl_set_num_threads(4), commit the first DFT descriptor, then call mkl_set_num_threads(2) and commit the second descriptor then use both within a loop?  Will this effectively let the first handle use 4 threads and the second use 2 (assuming I have 6+ cpus to work with on the machine)?




If DFTI_BACKWARD_SCRAMBLED is set, 1D FFTs are not threaded, though they could be and they would possibly be faster than in the DFTI_ORDERED case. If performance of large 1D transforms is critical for your application, please request tuning the scrambled case at

The workaround that you propose (calling mkl_set_num_threads) should work with the existing versions of Intel MKL but may stop working in the future.

Thank you!