This might not be the right place to ask this but the USB cable of my F200 is broken. It is out of warranty, so is there a place where I can get those kind of cables? (USB 3.0 to 10-pin header)
Unlike later RealSense models, the F200's USB cable is wired into the case. It looks like there are flat rubber caps either side of the stand's pivot point that would let the stand's pieces be separated to get access to the cable at the point where it enters the camera.
The F200 never had a data sheet document published for it, so it's hard for me to advise you about the wiring without opening my own F200 up. When you say it is a 10 pin setup though, it makes me wonder if the F200 used the same USB circuitry as the R200 which launched several months later. In those old cameras, Intel tended to use the same parts in different models.
Someone once made a custom USB cable and interface board for the R200.
They posted their electronics plans for the project here:
https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1HJCIAC2Ny7aDa6ZCP1dr6HOU3oX4g61T RealSenseBoard - Google Drive
Your image does seem to closely resemble the 10-pin receptacle described on pages 38 and 39 of the R200's data sheet document.