That error is "unable to start", meaning that Windows is refusing to run the application at all. Is the target system running Windows XP by any chance? If so, see https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/linking-applications-using-visual-studio-2012-to-run-on-windows-xp
By the way, I assume you meant version 17.0.
Wow, those MSBUILD logs are nearly impossible to read... Of course, this showed only the C++ side, but I doubt seeing the Fortran logs would be helpful.
Would you please set the linker option to generate a map file, relink, then attach a ZIP of the .map file to a reply here? I'm guessing that the static code and data is close to or greater than 2GB, which can trigger this error. At first I thought the use of /STACK:"20000000" in link options might be an issue, but that's only 20MB and unlikely to cause a problem.