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Undefined array in Fortran 2008 automatic LHS memory allocation


I have noticed that the following piece of code works every time when I compile it using ifort:

program test
     implicit  none
     real, dimension(:), allocatable :: a    
     a = [a, 2.0]
     print *, a
end program test

In the above, 'a' is undefined and yet it is being used in the statement "a = [a,.2.0]. The above code prints "2.0" correctly. If you compile it using gfortran, then sometimes you will see segfault and sometimes not. 

So the question is: Is it safe to use an allocatable array this way when you are only compiling using ifort. I mean does ifort compiler recognizes this code as valid and knows that if 'a' is not allocated already then just allocate a one real size of memory for it?

I find this "feature" very convenient when using Fortran 2008's LHS reallocation. Otherwise, we have to do this:

if (.NOT. allocated(a)) then

  a = 2.0


a = [a, 2.0]

end if 

The above code works with gfortran as well as ifort but its not very pleasing to me especially inside a loop.

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6 Replies
Black Belt Retired Employee

It's not a feature, it's an error in your program. If you compile with pointer checking enabled, you get:

forrtl: severe (408): fort: (8): Attempt to fetch from allocatable variable A when it is not allocated

You cannot and should not depend on the behavior when it is undefined.

Why not allocate the array to zero size initially? Then you don't need to do the test each time.


Thanks for your reply. New to Fortran, didn't even that was an option to allocate it to 0 size. That makes sense.

Honored Contributor II

Mahajan, Bharat wrote:
Thanks for your reply. New to Fortran, didn't even that was an option to allocate it to 0 size. That makes sense.

Don't feel too bad, I have been using Fortran many years and I didn't know allocating to 0 size was possible. :-(  

Valued Contributor I

allocating to zero size... How cool is that, and how disappointing no Fortran book mentions it.

Honored Contributor I

I am pretty sure you are mistaken about no Fortran book mentioning that. The Modern Fortran series by Metcalf, Reid and Cohen does mention it (unless I am terribly mistaken) - it is an example where a language feature helps to formulate algorithms in a clear style. Being able to use zero-length arrays means that you do not have to use a special case for that particular situation.

I suppose it is something one can lightly overlook. Just to be sure, I checked the text of Programming in Fortran 90/95 by J. S. Morgan and J. L. Schonfelder (2000 - very old indeed, but I just had that available). zero-length arrays are not discussed in length it would seem, but the description of the intrinsic functions and subroutines is flooded with such cases ;).

Black Belt

Indeed, the current edition of MFE has 7.2 Zero-sized arrays.