I have a desing compiled for an EP3C5 but I need to deploy it on an EP3C10 without recompiling it. (The package is the same for both devices).
Is there a way in Quartus to analyze the timing behaviour in the EP3C10 without recompiling the design for this device?
The package may be the same, but the internals are different. You would need to recompile.
You can simplify this in a few ways: add a new revision of your Quartus project with the different device set as the target or enable the second device as a migration device.