Well, Quartus tools are not tested to work on Ubuntu 17x and higher. I suggest you take a look at this thread and try the steps mentioned in that. It should help you with getting things working.
The instructions are for ModelSim Intel edition, but the libraries installed could also help Quartus run. So why not give them a try.
Run this command at the terminal window in Ubuntu :
sudo apt-get install gcc-multilib g++-multilib \ lib32z1 lib32stdc++6 lib32gcc1 \ expat:i386 fontconfig:i386 libfreetype6:i386 libexpat1:i386 libc6:i386 libgtk-3-0:i386 \ libcanberra0:i386 libpng12-0:i386 libice6:i386 libsm6:i386 libncurses5:i386 zlib1g:i386 \ libx11-6:i386 libxau6:i386 libxdmcp6:i386 libxext6:i386 libxft2:i386 libxrender1:i386 \ libxt6:i386 libxtst6:i386
this will install the missing libraries and should get Quartus working
No need, just run the command given earlier.. it downloads and installs them for you automatically. You must be connected to the Internet for them to download.
Open a terminal window in Ubuntu and copy paste the entire command given earlier to that and press Enter. This will download the libraries and install them for you. Then try launching Quartus again. If you get another error about missing libraries, then search Google for it or post the error here.